Nowadays, access networks for broadband internet access of currently 1GE per subscriber, are currently created either via PON (passive optical networks) or AONs (active optical networks). There are advantages and disadvantages to both solutions. We can explain what these are while considering your own network, customer structure and requirement profiles.
The access networks belonging to utilities, municipalities, transportation companies and railways (some of which are also categorised as having critical infrastructure) very often still have extensive copper telecommunications cable networks, which can still be used due to much lower bandwidth demands. Nevertheless, low latency, QoS, superior fail-safe operation and a greater temperature range are very often required, so we also talk about carrier Ethernet access in this case..